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Why is our jewellery not made of pure gold ?

The strength of gold—nickel—copper alloys is caused by formation of two phases, a gold-rich Au—Cu, and a nickel-rich Ni—Cu, and the resulting hardening of the material. The alloys used in jewelry industry are gold—palladium—silver and gold—nickel—copper—zinc. Palladium and nickel act as primary bleaching agents for gold; zinc acts as a secondary bleaching agent to attenuate the color of copper. The nickel used in some white gold alloys can cause an allergic reaction when worn over long periods also notably on some wristwatch casings.

Gold is rarely pure gold, even before another metal is added to make a white gold alloy and often contains a mercury alloy from its production, which can cause an allergic reaction. Rose gold is a gold—copper alloy [7] widely used for specialized jewelry. Rose gold, also known as pink gold and red gold, was popular in Russia at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and was also known as Russian gold, although this term is now obsolete.

Rose gold jewelry is becoming more popular in the 21st century, and is commonly used for wedding rings, bracelets, and other jewelry.

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Although the names are often used interchangeably, the difference between red, rose, and pink gold is the copper content: the higher the copper content, the stronger the red coloration. Pink gold uses the least copper, followed by rose gold, with red gold having the highest copper content. Examples of the common alloys for 18K rose gold, 18K red gold, 18K pink gold, and 12K red gold include: [3]. The highest karat version of rose gold, also known as crown gold , is 22 karat.

During ancient times, due to impurities in the smelting process, gold frequently turned a reddish color. This is why many Greco-Roman texts, and even many texts from the Middle Ages, describe gold as "red". Some gold copper— aluminium alloys form a fine surface texture at heat treatment, yielding an interesting spangling effect. At cooling, they undergo a quasi-martensitic transformation from body-centered cubic to body-centered tetragonal phase; the transformation does not depend on the cooling rate.

Green gold was known to the Lydians as long ago as BC under the name electrum , a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold. Fired enamels adhere better to these alloys than to pure gold. Cadmium can also be added to gold alloys to create a green color, but there are health concerns regarding its use, as cadmium is highly toxic.

Grey gold alloys are usually made from gold and palladium. A cheaper alternative which does not use palladium is made by adding silver, manganese , and copper to the gold in specific ratios.

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All the AuX 2 intermetallics have the fluorite CaF 2 crystal structure, and, therefore, are brittle. Slightly nonstoichiometric compositions are used, however, to achieve a fine-grained two- or three-phase microstructure with reduced brittleness. Another way of reducing brittleness is to add a small amount of palladium, copper, or silver.

The intermetallic compounds tend to have poor corrosion resistance. The less noble elements are leached to the environment, and a gold-rich surface layer is formed. Direct contact of blue and purple gold elements with skin should be avoided as exposure to sweat may result in metal leaching and discoloration of the metal surface.

Purple gold also called amethyst gold and violet gold is an alloy of gold and aluminium rich in gold—aluminium intermetallic AuAl 2. Purple gold is more brittle than other gold alloys a serious fault when it forms in electronics [11] , as it is an intermetallic compound instead of a malleable alloy, and a sharp blow may cause it to shatter. At a lower content of gold, the material is composed of the intermetallic and an aluminium-rich solid solution phase.

The actual composition of AuAl 2 is closer to Al 11 Au 6 as the sublattice is incompletely occupied. Blue gold is an alloy of gold and either gallium or indium. With gallium, gold forms an intermetallic AuGa 2 A surface plating of blue gold on karat gold or sterling silver can be achieved by a gold plating of the surface, followed by indium plating, with layer thickness matching the atomic ratio. A heat treatment then causes interdiffusion of the metals and formation of the required intermetallic compound. Black gold is a type of gold used in jewelry.

A range of colors from brown to black can be achieved on copper-rich alloys by treatment with potassium sulfide. Cobalt-containing alloys, e. Copper, iron and titanium can be also used for such effect. More recently, black gold can be formed by creating nanostructures on the surface. A femtosecond laser pulse deforms the surface of the metal, creating an immensely increased surface area which absorbs virtually all the light that falls on it, thus rendering it deep black, [15] but this method is used in high technology applications rather than for appearance in jewelry.


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Why Rose Gold jewelry can discolor my skin? – StatementGrey

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Why Rose Gold jewelry can discolor my skin?

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