By contrast, The Bulletin of Popular Information went through three series of complex numbering before being renamed Arnoldia, now known for the articles by Wilson, and Wyman. Independent of their salaried positions, Wilson wrote such lasting publications as: China, Mother of Gardens, Aristocrats of the Garden, and Amer- ica's Greatest Garden ; while Wyman's comparative observations of the living collections were expressed in his series such as Trees for American Gardens , or his most recent Wymans Gar- den Encyclopedia.
Such listings have appeared in Arnoldia. Plants introduced by an arboretum must be propagated and distributed to be of value, and again in accordance with its age, the Arnold Arboretum has played a major role. The records of plants handled as seed or cuttings by the propagators, Jackson Dawson, William Judd, Richard Filmore, Louis Lipp, Roger Coggeshall, and Alfred Fordham, are complete and will, some day, form the basis for a complete manual of vegetative plant propagation.
The organization has been generous in offering surplus materials to other botanical gardens, to colleges and universities, and to Friends of the Arnold Arboretum. Selections of chance seedlings on the grounds, a result of growing many species of plants, have yielded many interesting plants to American horticulture, including Rosa arnoldiana, Malus arnoldiana, Lonicera "Arnold Red,' and Hamamelis "Ar- nold Promise. Sax's work on dwarfing plants, reviving old suggestions of the use of interstock and bark inversions, was widely adopted by the commercial trade.
The early use of propagation frames of plastic, although neither original nor new in principle, used modem materials and was widely pub- licized. G, Jack, which have continued and developed into numerous classes for the public. These volumes are modified floras or monographs, featuring accurate descriptions by Sargent and the classic illustrations by Faxon. During Sargent's administration, E.
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H Wilson was to collect in China and to write voluminously on the flora of temperate Asia. Alfred Rehder, as Curator, was responsible for the identification of most of the plant specimens Wilson collected which were associated with the introductions made for their horticultural significance.
The Journal of the Arnold Arboretum was started in as a place of publication of the scientific work of the staff. The four articles in the initial issue were on willows by Camillo Schneider; a phyto geo graphical sketch of the ligneous flora of Korea by E. The Journal completed its 50th volume in It has been edited through the years by Rehder, A. Smith, C. Kobuski, C. Wood, Jr. Schubert, all perfectionists, so that the periodical has a justified reputation for excellence.
A series of special publications, offered only for sale and not for exchange, had a short life due to excessive costs. The series began as Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum 11 num- bers , and was renamed Sargentia 9 issues. While a need continues for a place for the publication of longer papers, the financial problems of printing and distribution remain. When E. Merrill became Director in , the research interest of the staff turned to Asia.
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Merrill invested a pro- portionately large amount of Arboretum funds in the support of local botanists in China, Indo-China, and tropical Asia, for the collection of plant specimens for scientific study. So large was the quantity of material, that some packages remain today unstudied for lack of staff to investigate the material.
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Merrill was a specialist on the flora of the Philippines, and recognized the paucity of materials and information on the islands further south. In this he was a master.
Perry, number 21 papers in the Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. The experience of working with Merrill and his volume allowed a graduate student, R. Johnston made a wartime con- tribution in taxonomic and ecological studies of San Jose Is- land, Panama. This program was one of the first to study the effects of chemicals as defoliants in tropical jungles. Con- trasting were the studies made at the Arnold Arboretum in the use of plant materials for camouflage where studies of per- sistence of cut foliage were equally significant.
Although taxonomic studies using the herbarium and the library have dominated the contributions of the staff, there are areas of special contribution. Perhaps the contribution of I.
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Bailey in systematic and comparative wood anatomy is foremost. Howard and his associates. Horace Faull was appointed pathologist on the Arbo- retum staff in , and his small primitive laboratory was the first to recognize the occurrence of Dutch Elm disease in the United States. His many warnings of the potential of this disease went unheeded. With co-workers and students he amassed an herbarium of specimens of diseases of native as well as cultivated plants needed for the taxonomic studies of fungi.
After his retirement, the field was not continued as a staff position, presumably due to the development of well-fi- nanced governmental laboratories by the State and Federal bureaus. The library of the Arnold Arboretum began with private purchases by Charles Sargent of the books fundamental to his program.
These were kept in his own residence until the Ad- ministration Building was built. Alfred Rehder was sent to Europe to buy books for the Arnold Arboretum library, and his choices resulted in most of the classic items with our col- lections.
The interest of these two men in books is best ex- pressed in the Bradley Bibliography of five volumes, one of the great privately sponsored works of the century. Documentation of the library of the Arnold Arboretum was supplied by Miss Ethelyn Tucker in the three-volume annotated Catalogue of the Library of the Arnold Arboretum. Lazel- la Schwarten made her contribution through the years of con- tribution to the Torrey Index of American Literature.
The Schwarten and Rickett abbreviations of titles of periodicals can be regarded as the predecessors of more recent standardized fists of abbreviations. To Merrill must go recognition for the initial efforts to re- print and make available rare volumes of taxonomic value. Using either Arboretum funds or his own, Merrill arranged for the reproduction of the works of Blume, Rafinesque, and others, before reprint and photocopied editions became commercial opportunities.
Merrill also obtained the financial support re- quired to place on microfilm photographic images of the speci- Scientists and Scientific Contributions 55 mens in the Linnaean Herbarium in the early years of World War II. This innovative procedure has also been adopted com- mercially today. Merrill brought to the Arnold Arboretum and implemented his idea of pasting the entries of the many volumes and supplements of Index Kewensis in one alphabetical se- quence. The work of the last decade of the first century is perhaps more familiar.
Outstanding as an example of the value of utilizing the herbarium, the library, and good illustrative techniques, is the Generic Flora of the Southeastern United States , initially fi- nanced by a private benefactor, and more recently supported in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Other monographic work at the generic or familial level is published regularly in the Journal of the Arnold Arboretum.
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Horticultural taxonomy, as a prelude to work on a revision of Rehder s man- ual, has involved the building up of an herbarium of plants under cultivation in the United States while continuing the literature additions to the Rehder bibliographic files. Over the first century, the endowment of the Arnold Arbore- tum has grown by gifts from individuals who value the efforts and the contributions of the staff.
The herbarium contains , specimens, of which , form an herbarium of cultivated plants. Mod- ern greenhouses and laboratories for research are associated with the living collections and the teaching programs. The distinguished heritage of the First Century is but the foundation of continued contributions of many present and future staff members.
Howard The following alphabetical list represents those members of the Arnold Arboretum staff with regular appointments who have contributed to our history through their publications. Many, of course, are dead, and reference is given to appropriate obituaries. Some are now at other institutions or have retired. All, however, contributed to the work for which the Arnold Arboretum is now known.
Assistant in the Herbarium. Taxonomy — Lauraceae. Professor, Supervisor. Taxonomy — Or- chidaceae.
Arnold Arb. Genetics: Tradescantia; hor- ticultural articles. Assistant Librarian.