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Examining the effects of different teaching strategies on metacognition and academic performance

Vandergrift L. Orchestrating strategy use: Toward a model of the skilled second language listener student. Language Learning, 53, — Featured image from Pexels. Very good clear report. Thanks Geoff. I hope this report can prompt some more cpncrete strategie listening training!

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Skip to content. May 1, Clare Maas 2 Comments. They approach every mathematics problems using only a small number of strategies, and even these strategies they apply inconsistently.

Teachers can begin to address these issues by teaching the students cognitive strategies e. However, teaching students cognitive strategies alone is not enough to ensure that those strategies will be implemented correctly or independently. This is especially the case for students with mathematics difficulties and disabilities, who tend to implement the same strategy for every problem, implement strategies without considering the problem type, or fail to use a strategy at all.


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If students are to be more successful, teachers should pair instruction on cognitive strategies with that of metacognitive strategies —strategies that enable students to become aware of how they think when solving mathematics problems. This combined strategy instruction teaches students how to consider the appropriateness of the problem-solving approach, make sure that all procedural steps are implemented, and check for accuracy or to confirm that their answers makes sense. More specifically, metacognitive strategies help students learn to:.


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Plan — Students decide how to approach the mathematical problem, first determining what the problem is asking and then selecting and implementing an appropriate strategy to solve it. Monitor — As students solve a mathematical problem, they check to see whether their problem-solving approach is working.

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After completing the problem, they consider whether the answer makes sense. Modify — If, as they work to solve a mathematical problem, students determine that their problem-solving approach is not working or that their answer is incorrect, they can adjust their approach. Research Shows. Types of Metacognitive Strategies Metacognitive strategies that help students plan, monitor, and modify their mathematical problem-solving include self-instruction and self-monitoring.

Not only are these strategies relatively easy for students to implement, but they also help students to become better independent problem solvers. But they may fail to use the best strategy for each type of learning situation. Here are some metacognitive strategies that will sound familiar to you:. Metacognitive strategies facilitate learning how to learn. You can incorporate these, as appropriate, into eLearning courses, social learning experiences, pre- and post-training activities and other formal or informal learning experiences.

In summary, metacognition is a set of skills that enable learners to become aware of how they learn and to evaluate and adapt these skills to become increasingly effective at learning. In a world that demands lifelong learning, providing people with new and improved metacognitive strategies is a gift that can last forever.

Great article. Over the past year I have tried your technique of metacognition with my children and new interns. Thank you for all your help.


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After reading this article, I now have a better appreciation of how important it is to understand information processing. I appreciate the simplicity and the clear and concise explanation of how the instructional designer can facitate learning how to learn by incorporating the suggested strategies. I also realize that students can also enhance their own learning by developing their own metacognitive processing strategies.

This site can be very useful to any new instructional designer, and I will return for future reference,. Your article is very informative and easy to read. Duell, Flavell and Wellman in their studies on the topic determined variables influencing metacognition, the learner, task, and strategy. Ormrod, J. Learning theories and instruction Laureate custom edition. New York: Pearson.

Page 7: Metacognitive Strategies

This article has been very informative and has validated thoughts I had regarding learning how to learn. One thing I have noticed over the year during both my educational and professional career is that individuals process information and learn differently. Once an individual recognizes the best learning method for themselves, learning does not seem like such of a difficult task. My personal experience has been that I do not learn very quickly just by listening to a lecture or even just reading material. I learn by seeing examples and tactfully working through problems. In addition to these strategies, I also ensure I understand fresh material by reviewing it via various methods.

For instance, when I first began to learn about learning theories, I was experiencing a difficult time with understanding the differences. I quickly searched for other media to learn the material.

Metacognition, Strategy Use, and Instruction

I found that interactive videos and YouTube videos were very helpful with explaining the different theory. Once I gained insight on the material, I was able to go back and read a book with understanding. My sister on the other hand was fully understood the material by simply reading a book. Hi Vasheti, Your comment is very insightful and will probably help many people become more aware of how they learn. And how important it is to figure it out. So I need different strategies for different types of skills and knowledge.

Thanks for your comment. I always start out the year with a handout that discusses how students learn and it as questions that help the student realize what type of learner they are.